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His findings are summarised in the following table.Arguing by analogy, Varner claims that any animal which exhibits the properties listed in the table could be said to experience pain.
This is the ability to detect noxious stimuli which evoke a reflex response that rapidly moves the entire animal, or the affected part of its body, away from the source of the stimulus.experience pain in a way analogous to humans, and that analgesics are effective in these two classes of vertebrates.In 2012 the American philosopher Gary Varner reviewed the research literature on pain in animals.Fish fulfill several criteria proposed as indicating that non-human animals may experience pain.These fulfilled criteria include a suitable nervous system and sensory receptors, opioid receptors and reduced responses to noxious stimuli when given analgesics and local anaesthetics, physiological changes to noxious stimuli, displaying protective motor reactions, exhibiting avoidance learning and making trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational requirements.“Ernie contacted me first and I liked the look of his profile.
We decided to meet at a local pub and realised we had a lot in common. We would tell others to be genuine and considerate with those you meet and a sense of humour always helps!
The concept of nociception does not imply any adverse, subjective "feeling" – it is a reflex action.
An example in humans would be the rapid withdrawal of a finger that has touched something hot – the withdrawal occurs before any sensation of pain is actually experienced.
Nociception can be observed using modern imaging techniques; and a physiological and behavioral response to nociception can often be detected.
However, nociceptive responses can be so subtle in prey animals that trained (human) observers cannot perceive them, whereas natural predators can and subsequently target injured individuals.
Non-human animals, including all mammals and birds, and many other creatures, including octopuses, also possess these neurological substrates.