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The Great Sphinx at Giza dates from the time of Khafre.
Indeed, it is believed by some scholars that the Old Kingdom, influenced by the craftsmen of the Memphite court and the philosopher-theologians of Ptah, reached a peak of “classic” culture that was never surpassed in Egypt.
The beautiful reliefs in certain of these tombs include scenes of daily life and thus give some idea of the crafts, costumes, and occupations of the royal court of Memphis.
Since little has survived of domestic architecture and household furnishings, these reliefs are a valuable source of information on such subjects.
The first king of the 4th dynasty, Snefru, built two pyramid tombs at Dahshūr.
The three great pyramids of Giza belong to Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure, later 4th-dynasty monarchs.
The kings of the 5th dynasty (Abū Ṣīr, are much smaller than those of the 4th dynasty, but the pyramid temples and causeways were decorated with fine reliefs.
This dynasty was probably marked by a decline of Memphite influence paralleling the rise of a sun cult centred at Heliopolis.
Several 12th-dynasty monarchs erected pyramids at Dahshūr, the southernmost of the Memphite pyramid fields, but the majority of Middle Kingdom monuments were located nearer to Al-Lisht.
Yet the predominant artistic and administrative influences during this period seem to be Memphite, and virtually every 12th-dynasty ruler added to the great temple of Ptah.
Memphis, city and capital of ancient Egypt and an important centre during much of Egyptian history.
Memphis is located south of the Nile River delta, on the west bank of the river, and about 15 miles (24 km) south of modern Cairo.
The Memphis archaeological zone was designated a UNESCO Menes, who supposedly united the two prehistoric kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt.