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Given Jerome's conservative methods and that manuscript evidence from outside Egypt at this early date is very rare, these Vulgate readings have considerable critical interest.
"close to the Hebrews", "immediately following the Hebrews") and was the version most commonly found in Vulgate bibles until it was supplanted by his Gallican psalms beginning in the 9th century.Jerome then embarked on a second revision of the Psalms, translated from the revised Septuagint Greek column of the Hexapla, which later came to be called the Gallican version.There are no indications that either these revisions from the Hexapla or Jerome's later revised versions of the Old Testament from the Hebrew were ever officially commissioned.These are 1 and 2 Maccabees, Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, Baruch, the Letter of Jeremiah, the Prayer of Manasses, 4 Esdras and the Epistle to the Laodiceans.Jerome translated all the Hebrew books of the Jewish canon (including the book of Psalms from the Greek Hexapla Septuagint), the books of Tobias and Judith from Aramaic, the additions to the book of Esther from the Common Septuagint and the additions to the book of Daniel from the Greek of Theodotion.Jerome translated the books of Judith and Tobit, engaging a Jewish intermediary to render the Aramaic into oral Hebrew for him then to paraphrase into Latin.
The Vulgate Old Testament texts that were translated from the Greek, whether by Jerome or preserving revised or unrevised Old Latin versions, are early and important secondary witnesses to the Septuagint.
Jerome, on his own initiative, extended this work of revision and translation to include most of the Books of the Bible, and once published, the new version was widely adopted and eventually eclipsed the While Jerome revised all the Gospels of the Vetus Latina from the Greek, it is unknown who revised the rest of the New Testament and 3 Esdras of the Vetus Latina.
Several unrevised books of the Vetus Latina were also included in the Vulgate.
The Vulgate is usually credited as being the first translation of the Old Testament into Latin directly from the Hebrew Tanakh rather than from the Greek Septuagint.
Jerome's extensive use of exegetical material written in Greek, as well as his use of the Aquiline and Theodotiontic columns of the Hexapla, along with the somewhat paraphrastic style Saint Augustine, a contemporary of Saint Jerome, states in Book XVII ch.
In 385, Jerome was forced out of Rome and eventually settled in Bethlehem.