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27-Jan-2020 02:48 by 6 Comments

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Although the majority of Daily Centers collaborate with local Centers for Social Welfare, most Daily Centers are not institutionalized and, therefore, lack consistent financial and technical support.(16, 25) This may limit the ability of Daily Centers to identify and assist children working on the streets. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

NGOs receive funding from either the Ministry of Security or the Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees to provide shelter to these children.(5) However, law enforcement personnel and prosecutors often are unwilling to pursue investigations and prosecutions against parents involved in the trafficking of their children, particularly for forced labor, and the shelters subsequently return the children to the parents who trafficked them.(13) Furthermore, a government official acknowledged that, although judges and prosecutors receive some basic training on human trafficking through the Agency for Education and Training, additional training is needed, particularly on how to properly prosecute cases involving child begging as a result of human trafficking.(25, 49, 52) Although the Government has established the Department of the State Coordinator for Combating Trafficking in Persons, research found no evidence of mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address other forms of child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8). Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor Coordinate human trafficking victim protection efforts among relevant ministries at the entity level, and among prosecutors at the state, entity, and local levels, as well as with NGOs.(12, 53) Oversee the human trafficking database, which includes data from NGOs, SIPA, SBP, and police agencies and Prosecutors’ Offices at all levels.(47) Publish data from this database in its annual report on trafficking.(12) Oversee shelter management and monitor NGOs’ compliance with the agreed-upon provisions on victims’ assistance.(47) Coordinate human trafficking investigations across government agencies.(12) Convene once a month, with additional meetings scheduled as needed.(11, 12, 14, 52) Chaired by the Chief State Prosecutor, includes Bi H, FBi H, RS, and BD ministries and agencies.(12, 45) In 2016, it began drafting an action plan to protect children from pornography and internet child exploitation.(14) Monitor implementation of the Strategy to Counter Trafficking in Human Beings (TIP Strategy), the corresponding Action Plan, and the National Referral Mechanism.(12, 54) Comprises appointed representatives from the state and entity governments, including labor inspectors and elected representatives from NGOs.(3) Facilitate coordination among state, entity, and cantonal-level institutions, as well as between NGOs and intergovernmental organizations.(12, 51) In 2016, implemented activities in the national TIP Strategy, Action Plan, and National Referral Mechanism.(14) Labor inspectors were incorporated into the regional monitoring teams in 2016. In 2016, the Ministry of Human Rights and Refugees distributed ,327 to assist domestic victims, ,716 to assist foreign victims, and ,500 for European Anti-Trafficking Day.(14) Services include counseling, educational assistance and job training for domestic victims, and visa and legal services for foreign victims of human trafficking.(49) EU-funded project implemented by the International Center for Migration Policy Development in six countries, including Bi H. Aims to build the capacity of participating governments to prevent human trafficking by providing policy, legal, and technical assistance.(67) Focuses on improving victim identification, increasing the prosecution of traffickers, and strengthening coordination among stakeholders.(67) UNICEF-funded program. In 2016, Bosnia and Herzegovina made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina amended the Criminal Code to criminalize all forms of human trafficking within its jurisdiction, thereby harmonizing the law with the rest of the country. Also, minimum age protections in the FBi H, RS, and BD labor codes do not apply to children who are self-employed or working outside of formal employment relationships.(28-30)Therefore, most children engaged in street work, the most common form of child labor, are not protected by the law.(1-5, 21, 28-30) In addition, Bi H, FBi H, RS, and BD do not have laws that prohibit the recruitment of children by non-state armed groups and children are punished for their association with armed groups.(11, 32-34, 36) Finally, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not include begging, an area of work where there is evidence of associated dangers.(42-44) The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). Commission Staff Working Document: Bosnia and Herzegovina 2013 Progress Report, Accompanying the Document, "Communication From the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council, Enlargement Strategy and Main Challenges 2013–2014".

However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement * The Government does not publish this information.

Research found no evidence of mechanisms to coordinate efforts to address child labor that does not involve trafficking, including its worst forms.

A source also indicated the need for the Regional Monitoring Teams to increase their coordination efforts regarding the referral and protection of human trafficking victims.(12, 25) Mandates that the Government provide assistance to human trafficking victims, efficiently prosecute trafficking crimes, prevent trafficking in persons, and strengthen collaboration and coordination among stakeholders involved in combating human trafficking in Bi H.(12, 57) Outlines a comprehensive strategy for cooperative efforts between the Government and the Council of Europe.

The Government lacks a mechanism to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms.

In addition, the minimum age protections in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska, and Brčko District labor codes do not apply to children who are self-employed or working outside formal employment relationships.

Sources also indicate that some Roma children face discrimination by some teachers and peers; travel long distances to schools; and are unable to afford school supplies, including clothing and food.(15, 18, 22, 24) In addition, research found that discrimination against some Roma children by school administrators has led to disproportionately high enrollment rates of Roma children in schools for children with intellectual disabilities.(25) Children with disabilities generally face barriers to accessing education, which may make them vulnerable to child labor.(6) Although the number of school programs for children with disabilities is increasing, parents of such children often receive little support from the Government and many schools are unable to provide accommodations for their disabilities.(6) Non-state armed groups, such as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), recruited adults and their children in Bi H for use in armed conflict in Syria.(26, 27) Bi H is a democratic republic with a bicameral parliament.